Exit Intent

## [MCQ’s] Artificial Intelligence

#### Module 01

1. What is the main task of a problem-solving agent?
A. Solve the given problem and reach to goal
B. To find out which sequence of action will get it to the goal state
C. Both A and B
D. None of the Above
Ans : C
Explanation: The problem-solving agents are one of the goal-based agents

2. What is Initial state + Goal state in Search Terminology?
A. Problem Space
B. Problem Instance
C. Problem Space Graph
Ans : B
Explanation: Problem Instance : It is Initial state + Goal state.

3. What is Time Complexity of Breadth First search algorithm?
A. b
B. b^d
C. b^2
D. b^b
Ans : B
Explanation: Time Complexity of Breadth First search algorithm is b^d.

4. Depth-First Search is implemented in recursion with _______ data structure.
A. LIFO
B. LILO
C. FIFO
D. FILO
Ans : A
Explanation: Depth-First Search implemented in recursion with LIFO stack data structure.

5. How many types are available in uninformed search method?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
Ans : D
Explanation: The five types of uninformed search method are Breadth-first, Uniform-cost, Depth-first, Depth-limited and Bidirectional search.

6. Which data structure conveniently used to implement BFS?
A. Stacks
B. Queues
C. Priority Queues
D. None of the Above
Ans : B
Explanation: Queue is the most convenient data structure, but memory used to store nodes can be reduced by using circular queues.

7. How many types of informed search method are in artificial intelligence?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
Ans : C
Explanation: The four types of informed search method are best-first search, Greedy best-first search, A* search and memory bounded heuristic search.

8. Greedy search strategy chooses the node for expansion in ___________
A. Shallowest
B. Deepest
C. The one closest to the goal node
D. Minimum heuristic cost
Ans : C
Explanation: Sometimes minimum heuristics can be used, sometimes maximum heuristics function can be used. It depends upon the application on which the algorithm is applied.

9. What is disadvantage of Greedy Best First Search?
A. This algorithm is neither complete, nor optimal.
B. It can get stuck in loops. It is not optimal.
C. There can be multiple long paths with the cost ≤ C*
D. may not terminate and go on infinitely on one path
Ans : B
Explanation: The disadvantage of Greedy Best First Search is that it can get stuck in loops. It is not optimal.

10. Searching using query on Internet is, use of ___________ type of agent.
A. Offline agent
B. Online Agent
C. Goal Based
D. Both B and C
Ans : D
Explanation: Refer to the definitions of both the type of agent.

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11. An AI system is composed of?
A. agent
B. environment
C. Both A and B
D. None of the Above
Ans : C
Explanation: An AI system is composed of an agent and its environment.

12. Which instruments are used for perceiving and acting upon the environment?
A. Sensors and Actuators
B. Sensors
C. Perceiver
D. Perceiver and Sensor
Ans : A
Explanation: An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving and acting upon the environment through the sensors and actuators.

13. Which of the following is not a type of agents in artificial intelligence?
A. Model based
B. Utility based
C. Simple reflex
D. target based
Ans : D
Explanation: The four types of agents are Simple reflex, Model based, Goal based and Utility based agents.

14. Which is used to improve the agents performance?
A. Perceiving
B. Observing
C. Learning
D. Sequence
Ans : C
Explanation: An agent can improve its performance by storing its previous actions.

15. Rationality of an agent does not depends on?
A. performance measures
B. Percept Sequence
C. reaction
D. actions
Ans : C
Explanation: Rationality of an agent does not depends on reaction

16. Agent’s structure can be viewed as ?
A. Architecture
B. Agent Program
C. Architecture + Agent Program
D. None of the Above
Ans : C
Explanation: Agent’s structure can be viewed as – Agent = Architecture + Agent Program

17. What is the action of task environment in artificial intelligence?
A. Problem
B. Solution
C. Agent
D. Observation
Ans : A
Explanation: Task environments will pose a problem and rational agent will find the solution for the posed problem.

18. What kind of environment is crossword puzzle?
A. Dynamic
B. Static
C. Semi Dynamic
D. Continuous
Ans : B
Explanation: As the problem in crossword puzzle are posed at beginning itself, So it is static.

19. What could possibly be the environment of a Satellite Image Analysis System?
A. Computers in space and earth
B. Image categorization techniques
C. Statistical data on image pixel intensity value and histograms
D. All of the above
Ans : D
Explanation: An environment is something which agent stays in.

20. Which kind of agent architecture should an agent an use?
A. Relaxed
B. Relational
C. Both A and B
D. None of the AboveAns : C
Explanation: Because an agent may experience any kind of situation, So that an agent should use all kinds of architecture.

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21. Which depends on the percepts and actions available to the agent?
a) Agent
b) Sensor
c) Design problem
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: The design problem depends on the percepts and actions available to the agent, the goals that the agent’s behavior should satisfy.

22. Which were built in such a way that humans had to supply the inputs and interpret the outputs?
a) Agents
b) AI system
c) Sensor
d) Actuators
Explanation: AI systems were built in such a way that humans had to supply the inputs and interpret the outputs.

23. Which technology uses miniaturized accelerometers and gyroscopes?
a) Sensors
b) Actuators
c) MEMS
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Micro ElectroMechanical System uses miniaturized accelerometers and gyroscopes and is used to produce actuators.

24. What is used for tracking uncertain events?
a) Filtering algorithm
b) Sensors
c) Actuators
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Filtering algorithm is used for tracking uncertain events because in this the real perception is involved.

25. What is not represented by using propositional logic?
a) Objects
b) Relations
c) Both Objects & Relations
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Objects and relations are not represented by using propositional logic explicitly.

26. Which functions are used as preferences over state history?
a) Award
b) Reward
c) Explicit
d) Implicit
Explanation: Reward functions may be that preferences over states are really compared from preferences over state histories.

27. Which kind of agent architecture should an agent an use?
a) Relaxed
b) Logic
c) Relational
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Because an agent may experience any kind of situation, So that an agent should use all kinds of architecture.

28. Specify the agent architecture name that is used to capture all kinds of actions.
a) Complex
b) Relational
c) Hybrid
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: A complete agent must be able to do anything by using hybrid architecture.

29. Which agent enables the deliberation about the computational entities and actions?
a) Hybrid
b) Reflective
c) Relational
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Because it enables the agent to capture within itself.

30. What can operate over the joint state space?
a) Decision-making algorithm
b) Learning algorithm
c) Complex algorithm
d) Both Decision-making & Learning algorithm

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31. What is the action of task environment in artificial intelligence?
a) Problem
b) Solution
c) Agent
d) Observation
Explanation: Task environments will pose a problem and rational agent will find the solution for the posed problem.

32. What is the expansion if PEAS in task environment?
a) Peer, Environment, Actuators, Sense
b) Perceiving, Environment, Actuators, Sensors
c) Performance, Environment, Actuators, Sensors
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Task environment will contain PEAS which is used to perform the action independently.

33. What kind of observing environments are present in artificial intelligence?
a) Partial
b) Fully
c) Learning
d) Both Partial & Fully
Explanation: Partial and fully observable environments are present in artificial intelligence.

34. What kind of environment is strategic in artificial intelligence?
a) Deterministic
b) Rational
c) Partial
d) Stochastic
Explanation: If the environment is deterministic except for the action of other agent is called deterministic.

35. What kind of environment is crossword puzzle?
a) Static
b) Dynamic
c) Semi Dynamic
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: As the problem in crossword puzzle are posed at beginning itself, So it is static.

36. What kind of behavior does the stochastic environment posses?
a) Local
b) Deterministic
c) Rational
d) Primary
Explanation: Stochastic behavior are rational because it avoids the pitfall of predictability.

37. Which is used to select the particular environment to run the agent?
a) Environment creator
b) Environment Generator
c) Both Environment creator & Generator
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

38. Which environment is called as semi dynamic?
a) Environment does not change with the passage of time
b) Agent performance changes
c) Environment will be changed
d) Environment does not change with the passage of time, but Agent performance changes
Explanation: If the environment does not change with the passage of time, but the agent performance changes by time.

39. Where does the performance measure is included?
a) Rational agent
c) Actuators
d) Sensor
Explanation: In PEAS, Where P stands for performance measure which is always included in task environment.

#### Module 02

1. Which search strategy is also called as blind search?
a) Uninformed search
b) Informed search
c) Simple reflex search
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: In blind search, We can search the states without having any additional information. So uninformed search method is blind search.

2. How many types are available in uninformed search method?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 6
Explanation: The five types of uninformed search method are Breadth-first, Uniform-cost, Depth-first, Depth-limited and Bidirectional search.

3. Which search is implemented with an empty first-in-first-out queue?
a) Depth-first search
c) Bidirectional search
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Because of FIFO queue, it will assure that the nodes that are visited first will be expanded first.

4. When is breadth-first search is optimal?
a) When there is less number of nodes
b) When all step costs are equal
c) When all step costs are unequal
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Because it always expands the shallowest unexpanded node.

5. How many successors are generated in backtracking search?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
Explanation: Each partially expanded node remembers which successor to generate next because of these conditions, it uses less memory.

6. What is the space complexity of Depth-first search?
a) O(b)
b) O(bl)
c) O(m)
d) O(bm)
Explanation: O(bm) is the space complexity where b is the branching factor and m is the maximum depth of the search tree.

7. How many parts does a problem consists of?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
Explanation: The four parts of the problem are initial state, set of actions, goal test and path cost.

8. Which algorithm is used to solve any kind of problem?
b) Tree algorithm
c) Bidirectional search algorithm
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Tree algorithm is used because specific variants of the algorithm embed different strategies.

9. Which search algorithm imposes a fixed depth limit on nodes?
a) Depth-limited search
b) Depth-first search
c) Iterative deepening search
d) Bidirectional search
Explanation: None.

10. Which search implements stack operation for searching the states?
a) Depth-limited search
b) Depth-first search
d) None of the mentioned

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11. What is the other name of informed search strategy?
a) Simple search
b) Heuristic search
c) Online search
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: A key point of informed search strategy is heuristic function, So it is called as heuristic function.

12. How many types of informed search method are in artificial intelligence?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
Explanation: The four types of informed search method are best-first search, Greedy best-first search, A* search and memory bounded heuristic search.

13. Which search uses the problem specific knowledge beyond the definition of the problem?
a) Informed search
b) Depth-first search
d) Uninformed search
Explanation: Informed search can solve the problem beyond the function definition, So does it can find the solution more efficiently.

14. Which function will select the lowest expansion node at first for evaluation?
a) Greedy best-first search
b) Best-first search
c) Depth-first search
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: The lowest expansion node is selected because the evaluation measures distance to the goal.

15. What is the heuristic function of greedy best-first search?
a) f(n) != h(n)
b) f(n) < h(n)
c) f(n) = h(n)
d) f(n) > h(n)
Explanation: None.

16. Which search uses only the linear space for searching?
a) Best-first search
b) Recursive best-first search
c) Depth-first search
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Recursive best-first search will mimic the operation of standard best-first search, but using only the linear space.

17. Which method is used to search better by learning?
a) Best-first search
b) Depth-first search
c) Metalevel state space
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: This search strategy will help to problem solving efficiency by using learning.

18. Which search is complete and optimal when h(n) is consistent?
a) Best-first search
b) Depth-first search
c) Both Best-first & Depth-first search
d) A* search
Explanation: None.

19. Which is used to improve the performance of heuristic search?
a) Quality of nodes
b) Quality of heuristic function
c) Simple form of nodes
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Good heuristic can be constructed by relaxing the problem, So the performance of heuristic search can be improved.

20. Which search method will expand the node that is closest to the goal?
a) Best-first search
b) Greedy best-first search
c) A* search
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Because of using greedy best-first search, It will quickly lead to the solution of the problem.

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21. In many problems the path to goal is irrelevant, this class of problems can be solved using ____________
a) Informed Search Techniques
b) Uninformed Search Techniques
c) Local Search Techniques
d) Informed & Uninformed Search Techniques
Explanation: If the path to the goal does not matter, we might consider a different class of algorithms, ones that do not worry about paths at all. Local search algorithms operate using a single current state (rather than multiple paths) and generally move only to neighbors of that state.

22. Though local search algorithms are not systematic, key advantages would include __________
a) Less memory
b) More time
c) Finds a solution in large infinite space
d) Less memory & Finds a solution in large infinite space
Explanation: Two advantages: (1) they use very little memory-usually a constant amount; and (2) they can often find reasonable solutions in large or infinite (continuous) state spaces for which systematic algorithms are unsuitable.

23. A complete, local search algorithm always finds goal if one exists, an optimal algorithm always finds a global minimum/maximum.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: An algorithm is complete if it finds a solution if exists and optimal if finds optimal goal (minimum or maximum).

24. _______________ Is an algorithm, a loop that continually moves in the direction of increasing value – that is uphill.
a) Up-Hill Search
b) Hill-Climbing
c) Hill algorithm
d) Reverse-Down-Hill search
Explanation: Refer the definition of Hill-Climbing approach.

25. When will Hill-Climbing algorithm terminate?
a) Stopping criterion met
b) Global Min/Max is achieved
c) No neighbor has higher value
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: When no neighbor is having higher value, algorithm terminates fetching local min/max.

26. What are the main cons of hill-climbing search?
a) Terminates at local optimum & Does not find optimum solution
b) Terminates at global optimum & Does not find optimum solution
c) Does not find optimum solution & Fail to find a solution
d) Fail to find a solution
Explanation: Algorithm terminates at local optimum values, hence fails to find optimum solution.

27. Stochastic hill climbing chooses at random from among the uphill moves; the probability of selection can vary with the steepness of the uphil1 move.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Refer to the definition of variants of hill-climbing search.

28. Hill climbing sometimes called ____________ because it grabs a good neighbor state without thinking ahead about where to go next.
a) Needy local search
b) Heuristic local search
c) Greedy local search
d) Optimal local search
Explanation: None.

29. Hill-Climbing approach stuck for which of the following reasons?
a) Local maxima
b) Ridges
c) Plateaux
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Local maxima: a local maximum is a peak that is higher than each of its neighboring states, but lower than the global maximum. Ridges: Ridges result in a sequence of local maxima that is very difficult for greedy algorithms to navigate. Plateaux: a plateau is an area of the state space landscape where the evaluation function is flat.

30. ___________ algorithm keeps track of k states rather than just one.
a) Hill-Climbing search
b) Local Beam search
c) Stochastic hill-climbing search
d) Random restart hill-climbing search
Explanation: Refer to the definition of Local Beam Search algorithm.

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31. A genetic algorithm (or GA) is a variant of stochastic beam search in which successor states are generated by combining two parent states, rather than by modifying a single state.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Stochastic beam search, analogous to stochastic hill climbing, helps to alleviate this problem. Instead of choosing the best k from the pool of candidate successors, stochastic beam search chooses k successors at random, with the probability of choosing a given successor being an increasing function of its value.

32. What are the two main features of Genetic Algorithm?
a) Fitness function & Crossover techniques
b) Crossover techniques & Random mutation
c) Individuals among the population & Random mutation
d) Random mutation & Fitness function
Explanation: Fitness function helps choosing individuals from the population and Crossover techniques defines the offspring generated.

33. Searching using query on Internet is, use of ___________ type of agent.
a) Offline agent
b) Online agent
c) Both Offline & Online agent
d) Goal Based & Online agent
Explanation: Refer to the definitions of both the type of agent.

34. In how many directions do queens attack each other?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: Queens attack each other in three directions- vertical, horizontal and diagonal.

35. Placing n-queens so that no two queens attack each other is called?
a) n-queen’s problem
b) 8-queen’s problem
c) Hamiltonian circuit problem
d) subset sum problem

Explanation: Placing n queens so that no two queens attack each other is n-queens problem. If n=8, it is called as 8-queens problem.

36. Where is the n-queens problem implemented?
a) carom
b) chess
c) ludo
d) cards

Explanation: N-queens problem occurs in chess. It is the problem of placing n- queens in a n*n chess board.

37. Not more than 2 queens can occur in an n-queens problem.
a) true
b) false

Explanation: Unlike a real chess game, n-queens occur in a n-queen problem since it is the problem of dealing with n-queens.

38. In n-queen problem, how many values of n does not provide an optimal solution?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: N-queen problem does not provide an optimal solution of only three values of n (i.e.) n=2,3.

39. Which of the following methods can be used to solve n-queen’s problem?
a) greedy algorithm
b) divide and conquer
c) iterative improvement
d) backtracking

Explanation: Of the following given approaches, n-queens problem can be solved using backtracking. It can also be solved using branch and bound.

40. Of the following given options, which one of the following is a correct option that provides an optimal solution for 4-queens problem?
a) (3,1,4,2)
b) (2,3,1,4)
c) (4,3,2,1)
d) (4,2,3,1)

Explanation: Of the following given options for optimal solutions of 4-queens problem, (3, 1, 4, 2) is the right option.

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41. How many possible solutions exist for an 8-queen problem?
a) 100
b) 98
c) 92
d) 88

Explanation: For an 8-queen problem, there are 92 possible combinations of optimal solutions.

42. How many possible solutions occur for a 10-queen problem?
a) 850
b) 742
c) 842
d) 724

Explanation: For a 10-queen problem, 724 possible combinations of optimal solutions are available.

43. If n=1, an imaginary solution for the problem exists.
a) true
b) false

Explanation: For n=1, the n-queen problem has a trivial and real solution and it is represented by

44. What is the domination number for 8-queen’s problem?
a) 8
b) 7
c) 6
d) 5

Explanation: The minimum number of queens needed to occupy every square in n-queens problem is called domination number. While n=8, the domination number is 5.

45. Of the following given options, which one of the following does not provides an optimal solution for 8-queens problem?
a) (5,3,8,4,7,1,6,2)
b) (1,6,3,8,3,2,4,7)
c) (4,1,5,8,6,3,7,2)
d) (6,2,7,1,4,8,5,3)

Explanation: The following given options for optimal solutions of 8-queens problem, (1,6,3,8,3,2,4,7) does not provide an optimal solution.

46. General games involves ____________
a) Single-agent
b) Multi-agent
c) Neither Single-agent nor Multi-agent
d) Only Single-agent and M0ulti-agent

Explanation: Depending upon games it could be single agent (Sudoku) or multi-agent (Chess).

47. Adversarial search problems uses ____________
a) Competitive Environment
b) Cooperative Environment
c) Neither Competitive nor Cooperative Environment
d) Only Competitive and Cooperative Environment

Explanation: Since in cooperative environment agents’ goals are I conflicts. They compete for goal.

48. Mathematical game theory, a branch of economics, views any multi-agent environment as a game provided that the impact of each agent on the others is “significant,” regardless of whether the agents are cooperative or competitive.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: None.

49. Zero sum games are the one in which there are two agents whose actions must alternate and in which the utility values at the end of the game are always the same.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Utility values are always same and opposite.

50. Zero sum game has to be a ______ game.
a) Single player
b) Two player
c) Multiplayer
d) Three player

Explanation: Zero sum games could be multiplayer games as long as the condition for zero sum game is satisfied.

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51. A game can be formally defined as a kind of search problem with the following components.
a) Initial State
b) Successor Function
c) Terminal Test
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The initial state includes the board position and identifies the player to move. A successor function returns a list of (move, state) pairs, each indicating a legal move and the resulting state. A terminal test determines when the game is over. States where the game has ended are called terminal states. A utility function (also called an objective function or payoff function), which gives a numeric value for the terminal states. In chess, the outcome is a win, lose, or draw, with values +1, -1, or 0.

52. The initial state and the legal moves for each side define the __________ for the game.
a) Search Tree
b) Game Tree
c) State Space Search
d) Forest

Explanation: An example of game tree for Tic-Tac-Toe game.

53. General algorithm applied on game tree for making decision of win/lose is ____________
a) DFS/BFS Search Algorithms
b) Heuristic Search Algorithms
c) Greedy Search Algorithms
d) MIN/MAX Algorithms

Explanation: Given a game tree, the optimal strategy can be determined by examining the min/max value of each node, which we write as MINIMAX- VALUE(n). The min/max value of a node is the utility (for MAX) of being in the corresponding state, assuming that both players play optimally from there to the end of the game. Obviously, the min/max value of a terminal state is just its utility. Furthermore, given a choice, MAX will prefer to move to a state of maximum value, whereas MIN prefers a state of minimum value.

54. The minimax algorithm computes the minimax decision from the current state. It uses a simple recursive computation of the minimax values of each successor state, directly implementing the defining equations. The recursion proceeds all the way down to the leaves of the tree, and then the minimax values are backed up through the tree as the recursion unwinds.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Refer definition of minimax algorithm.

55. What is the complexity of minimax algorithm?
a) Same as of DFS
b) Space – bm and time – bm
c) Time – bm and space – bm
d) Same as BFS

Explanation: Same as DFS.

56. Which search is equal to minimax search but eliminates the branches that can’t influence the final decision?
a) Depth-first search
c) Alpha-beta pruning
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The alpha-beta search computes the same optimal moves as minimax, but eliminates the branches that can’t influence the final decision.

57. Which values are independant in minimax search algorithm?
a) Pruned leaves x and y
b) Every states are dependant
c) Root is independant
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The minimax decision are independant of the values of the pruned values x and y because of the root values.

58. To which depth does the alpha-beta pruning can be applied?
a) 10 states
b) 8 States
c) 6 States
d) Any depth

Explanation: Alpha–beta pruning can be applied to trees of any depth and it is possible to prune entire subtree rather than leaves.

59. Which search is similar to minimax search?
a) Hill-climbing search
b) Depth-first search
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The minimax search is depth-first search, So at one time we just have to consider the nodes along a single path in the tree.

60. Which value is assigned to alpha and beta in the alpha-beta pruning?
a) Alpha = max
b) Beta = min
c) Beta = max
d) Both Alpha = max & Beta = min

Explanation: Alpha and beta are the values of the best choice we have found so far at any choice point along the path for MAX and MIN.

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61. Where does the values of alpha-beta search get updated?
a) Along the path of search
b) Initial state itself
c) At the end
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Alpha-beta search updates the value of alpha and beta as it gets along and prunes the remaining branches at node.

62. How the effectiveness of the alpha-beta pruning gets increased?
a) Depends on the nodes
b) Depends on the order in which they are executed
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: None.

63. What is called as transposition table?
a) Hash table of next seen positions
b) Hash table of previously seen positions
c) Next value in the search
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Transposition is the occurrence of repeated states frequently in the search.

64. Which is identical to the closed list in Graph search?
a) Hill climbing search algorithm
b) Depth-first search
c) Transposition table
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: None.

65. Which function is used to calculate the feasibility of whole game tree?
a) Evaluation function
b) Transposition
c) Alpha-beta pruning
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: Because we need to cut the search off at some point and apply an evaluation function that gives an estimate of the utility of the state.

#### Module 03

1. There exist only two types of quantifiers, Universal Quantification and Existential Quantification.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: None.

2. Translate the following statement into FOL.
“For every a, if a is a philosopher, then a is a scholar”
a) ∀ a philosopher(a) scholar(a)
b) ∃ a philosopher(a) scholar(a)
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

3. A _________ is used to demonstrate, on a purely syntactic basis, that one formula is a logical consequence of another formula.
a) Deductive Systems
b) Inductive Systems
c) Reasoning with Knowledge Based Systems
d) Search Based Systems
Explanation: Refer the definition of Deductive based systems.

4. The statement comprising the limitations of FOL is/are ____________
a) Expressiveness
b) Formalizing Natural Languages
c) Many-sorted Logic
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: The Löwenheim–Skolem theorem shows that if a first-order theory has any infinite model, then it has infinite models of every cardinality. In particular, no first-order theory with an infinite model can be categorical. Thus there is no first-order theory whose only model has the set of natural numbers as its domain, or whose only model has the set of real numbers as its domain. Many extensions of first-order logic, including infinitely logics and higher-order logics, are more expressive in the sense that they do permit categorical axiomatizations of the natural numbers or real numbers. This expressiveness comes at a meta-logical cost, however: by Lindström’s theorem, the compactness theorem and the downward Löwenheim–Skolem theorem cannot hold in any logic stronger than first-order.
Formalizing Natural Languages : First-order logic is able to formalize many simple quantifier constructions in natural language, such as “every person who lives in Perth lives in Australia”. But there are many more complicated features of natural language that cannot be expressed in (single-sorted) first-order logic.
Many-sorted Logic: Ordinary first-order interpretations have a single domain of discourse over which all quantifiers range. Many-sorted first-order logic allows variables to have different sorts, which have different domains.

5. A common convention is:
• is evaluated first
• and are evaluated next
• Quantifiers are evaluated next
• is evaluated last.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: None.

6. A Term is either an individual constant (a 0-ary function), or a variable, or an n-ary function applied to n terms: F(t1 t2 ..tn).
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Definition of term in FOL.

7. First Order Logic is also known as ___________
a) First Order Predicate Calculus
b) Quantification Theory
c) Lower Order Calculus
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

8. The adjective “first-order” distinguishes first-order logic from ___________ in which there are predicates having predicates or functions as arguments, or in which one or both of predicate quantifiers or function quantifiers are permitted.
a) Representational Verification
c) Higher Order Logic
d) Inferential Efficiency
Explanation: None.

9. Which is created by using single propositional symbol?
a) Complex sentences
b) Atomic sentences
c) Composition sentences
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Atomic sentences are indivisible syntactic elements consisting of single propositional symbol.

10. Which is used to construct the complex sentences?
a) Symbols
b) Connectives
c) Logical connectives
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

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11. How many proposition symbols are there in artificial intelligence?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
Explanation: The two proposition symbols are true and false.

12. How many logical connectives are there in artificial intelligence?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5
Explanation: The five logical symbols are negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication and biconditional.

13. Which is used to compute the truth of any sentence?
a) Semantics of propositional logic
b) Alpha-beta pruning
c) First-order logic
d) Both Semantics of propositional logic & Alpha-beta pruning
Explanation: Because the meaning of the sentences is really needed to compute the truth.

14. Which are needed to compute the logical inference algorithm?
a) Logical equivalence
b) Validity
c) Satisfiability
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Logical inference algorithm can be solved be using logical equivalence, Validity and satisfiability.

15. From which rule does the modus ponens are derived?
a) Inference rule
b) Module rule
c) Both Inference & Module rule
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Inference rule contains the standard pattern that leads to desired goal. The best form of inference rule is modus ponens.

16. Which is also called single inference rule?
a) Reference
b) Resolution
c) Reform
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Because resolution yields a complete inference rule when coupled with any search algorithm.

17. Which form is called as a conjunction of disjunction of literals?
a) Conjunctive normal form
b) Disjunctive normal form
c) Normal form
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

18. What can be viewed as a single lateral of disjunction?
a) Multiple clause
b) Combine clause
c) Unit clause
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: A single literal can be viewed as a disjunction or one literal also, called a unit clause.

19. Which is a refutation complete inference procedure for propositional logic?
a) Clauses
b) Variables
c) Propositional resolution
d) Proposition
Explanation: Propositional resolution is a refutation complete inference procedure for propositional logic.

20. What kind of clauses are available in Conjunctive Normal Form?
a) Disjunction of literals
b) Disjunction of variables
c) Conjunction of literals
d) Conjunction of variables
Explanation: First-order resolution requires the clause to be in disjunction of literals in Conjunctive Normal Form.

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21. What is the condition of literals in variables?
a) Existentially quantified
b) Universally quantified
c) Quantified
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Literals that contain variables are assumed to be universally quantified.

22. Which can be converted to inferred equivalent CNF sentence?
a) Every sentence of propositional logic
b) Every sentence of inference
c) Every sentence of first-order logic
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Every sentence of first-order logic can be converted to inferred equivalent CNF sentence.

23. Which sentence will be unsatisfiable if the CNF sentence is unsatisfiable?
a) Search statement
c) Replaced statement
d) Original statement
Explanation: The CNF statement will be unsatisfiable just when the original sentence is unsatisfiable.

24. Which rule is equal to the resolution rule of first-order clauses?
a) Propositional resolution rule
b) Inference rule
c) Resolution rule
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: The resolution rule for first-order clauses is simply a lifted version of the propositional resolution rule.

25. At which state does the propositional literals are complementary?
a) If one variable is less
b) If one is the negation of the other
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Propositional literals are complementary if one is the negation of the other.

26. What is meant by factoring?
a) Removal of redundant variable
b) Removal of redundant literal
Explanation: None.

27. What will happen if two literals are identical?
a) Remains the same
c) Reduced to one
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Propositional factoring reduces two literals to one if they are identical.

28. When the resolution is called as refutation-complete?
a) Sentence is satisfiable
b) Sentence is unsatisfiable
c) Sentence remains the same
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Resolution is refutation-complete, if a set of sentence is unsatisfiable, then resolution will always be able to derive a contradiction.

29. Which condition is used to cease the growth of forward chaining?
a) Atomic sentences
b) Complex sentences
c) No further inference
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Forward chain can grow by adding new atomic sentences until no further inference is made.

30. Which closely resembles propositional definite clause?
a) Resolution
b) Inference
c) Conjunction
d) First-order definite clauses
Explanation: Because they are disjunction of literals of which exactly one is positive.

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31. What is the condition of variables in first-order literals?
a) Existentially quantified
b) Universally quantified
c) Both Existentially & Universally quantified
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: First-order literals will accept variables only if they are universally quantified.

32. Which are more suitable normal form to be used with definite clause?
a) Positive literal
b) Negative literal
c) Generalized modus ponens
d) Neutral literal
Explanation: Definite clauses are a suitable normal form for use with generalized modus ponen.

33. Which will be the instance of the class datalog knowledge bases?
a) Variables
b) No function symbols
c) First-order definite clauses
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: If the knowledge base contains no function symbols means, it is an instance of the class datalog knowledge base.

34. Which knowledge base is called as fixed point?
a) First-order definite clause are similar to propositional forward chaining
b) First-order definite clause are mismatch to propositional forward chaining
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Fixed point reached by forward chaining with first-order definiteclause are similar to those for propositional forward chaining.

35. How to eliminate the redundant rule matching attempts in the forward chaining?
a) Decremental forward chaining
b) Incremental forward chaining
c) Data complexity
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: We can eliminate the redundant rule matching attempts in the forward chaining by using incremental forward chaining.

36. From where did the new fact inferred on new iteration is derived?
a) Old fact
b) Narrow fact
c) New fact
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

37. Which will solve the conjuncts of the rule so that the total cost is minimized?
a) Constraint variable
b) Conjunct ordering
c) Data complexity
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Conjunct ordering will find an ordering to solve the conjuncts of the rule premise so that the total cost is minimized.

38. How many possible sources of complexity are there in forward chaining?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
Explanation: The three possible sources of complexity are an inner loop, algorithm rechecks every rule on every iteration, algorithm might generate many facts irrelevant to the goal.

39. Which algorithm will work backward from the goal to solve a problem?
a) Forward chaining
b) Backward chaining
c) Hill-climb algorithm
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Backward chaining algorithm will work backward from the goal and it will chain the known facts that support the proof.

40. Which is mainly used for automated reasoning?
a) Backward chaining
b) Forward chaining
c) Logic programming
d) Parallel programming
Explanation: Logic programming is mainly used to check the working process of the system.

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41. What will backward chaining algorithm will return?
b) Substitutes matching the query
c) Logical statement
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: It will contains the list of goals containing a single element and returns the set of all substitutions satisfying the query.

42. How can be the goal is thought of in backward chaining algorithm?
a) Queue
b) List
c) Vector
d) Stack
Explanation: The goals can be thought of as stack and if all of them us satisfied means, then current branch of proof succeeds.

43. What is used in backward chaining algorithm?
a) Conjuncts
b) Substitution
c) Composition of substitution
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

44. Which algorithm are in more similar to backward chaining algorithm?
a) Depth-first search algorithm
c) Hill-climbing search algorithm
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: It is depth-first search algorithm because its space requirements are linear in the size of the proof.

45. Which problem can frequently occur in backward chaining algorithm?
a) Repeated states
b) Incompleteness
c) Complexity
d) Both Repeated states & Incompleteness
Explanation: If there is any loop in the chain means, It will lead to incompleteness and repeated states.

46. How the logic programming can be constructed?
a) Variables
b) Expressing knowledge in a formal language
c) Graph
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Logic programming can be constructed by expressing knowledge in a formal expression and the problem can be solved by running inference process.

47. What form of negation does the prolog allows?
a) Negation as failure
b) Proposition
c) Substitution
d) Negation as success
Explanation: None.

48. Which is omitted in prolog unification algorithm?
a) Variable check
b) Occur check
c) Proposition check
d) Both Occur & Proposition check
Explanation: Occur check is omitted in prolog unification algorithm because of unsound inferences.

49. Knowledge and reasoning also play a crucial role in dealing with __________________ environment.
a) Completely Observable
b) Partially Observable
c) Neither Completely nor Partially Observable
d) Only Completely and Partially Observable
Explanation: Knowledge and reasoning could aid to reveal other factors that could complete environment.

50. Treatment chosen by doctor for a patient for a disease is based on _____________
a) Only current symptoms
b) Current symptoms plus some knowledge from the textbooks
c) Current symptoms plus some knowledge from the textbooks plus experience
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

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51. A knowledge-based agent can combine general knowledge with current percepts to infer hidden aspects of the current state prior to selecting actions.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Refer definition of Knowledge based agents.

52. A) Knowledge base (KB) is consists of set of statements.
B) Inference is deriving a new sentence from the KB.
Choose the correct option.
a) A is true, B is true
b) A is false, B is false
c) A is true, B is false
d) A is false, B is true
Explanation: None.

53. Wumpus World is a classic problem, best example of _______
a) Single player Game
b) Two player Game
c) Reasoning with Knowledge
d) Knowledge based Game
Explanation: Refer the definition of Wumpus World Problem.

54. ‘α |= β ‘(to mean that the sentence α entails the sentence β) if and only if, in every model in which α is _____ β is also _____
a) True, true
b) True, false
c) False, true
d) False, false
Explanation: Refer the definition of law of entailment.

55. Which is not a property of representation of knowledge?
a) Representational Verification
d) Inferential Efficiency
Explanation: None.

56. Which is not Familiar Connectives in First Order Logic?
a) and
b) iff
c) or
d) not
Explanation: “not” is coming under propositional logic and is therefore not a connective.

57. Inference algorithm is complete only if _____________
a) It can derive any sentence
b) It can derive any sentence that is an entailed version
c) It is truth preserving
d) It can derive any sentence that is an entailed version & It is truth preserving

58. An inference algorithm that derives only entailed sentences is called sound or truth-preserving.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: None.

59. The rule of Universal Instantiation (UI for short) says that we can infer any sentence obtained by substituting a ground term (a term without variables) for the variable.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Rule of universal instantiation.

60. The corresponding Existential Instantiation rule: for the existential quantifier is slightly more complicated. For any sentence a, variable v, and constant symbol k that does not appear elsewhere in the knowledge base.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Rule of existential instantiation.

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61. What among the following could the universal instantiation of ___________
For all x King(x) ^ Greedy(x) => Evil(x)
a) King(John) ^ Greedy(John) => Evil(John)
b) King(y) ^ Greedy(y) => Evil(y)
c) King(Richard) ^ Greedy(Richard) => Evil(Richard)
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Refer the definition if universal instantiation.

62. Lifted inference rules require finding substitutions that make different logical expressions looks identical.
a) Existential Instantiation
b) Universal Instantiation
c) Unification
d) Modus Ponen
Explanation: None.

63. Which of the following is not the style of inference?
a) Forward Chaining
b) Backward Chaining
c) Resolution Refutation
d) Modus Ponen
Explanation: Modus ponen is a rule for an inference.

64. In order to utilize generalized Modus Ponens, all sentences in the KB must be in the form of Horn sentences.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: None.

65. For resolution to apply, all sentences must be in conjunctive normal form, a conjunction of disjunctions of literals.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: None.

66. What are the two basic types of inferences?
a) Reduction to propositional logic, Manipulate rules directly
b) Reduction to propositional logic, Apply modus ponen
c) Apply modus ponen, Manipulate rules directly
d) Convert every rule to Horn Clause, Reduction to propositional logic
Explanation: None.

67. Which among the following could the Existential instantiation of ∃x Crown(x) ^ OnHead(x, Johnny)?
b) Crown(y) ^ OnHead(y, y, x)
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: None.

68. Translate the following statement into FOL.
“For every a, if a is a PhD student, then a has a master degree”
a) ∀ a PhD(a) -> Master(a)
b) ∃ a PhD(a) -> Master(a)
c) A is true, B is true
d) A is false, B is false
Explanation: None

69. The rule of Universal Instantiation (UI for short) says that we can infer any sentence obtained by substituting a ground term (a term without variables) for the variable.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Rule of universal instantiation.

70. The corresponding Existential Instantiation rule: for the existential quantifier is slightly more complicated. For any sentence a, variable v, and constant symbol k that does not appear elsewhere in the knowledge base.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Rule of existential instantiation.

#### Module 04

1. Which is the most straightforward approach for planning algorithm?
a) Best-first search
b) State-space search
c) Depth-first search
d) Hill-climbing search

Explanation: The straightforward approach for planning algorithm is state space search because it takes into account of everything for finding a solution.

2. What are taken into account of state-space search?
a) Postconditions
b) Preconditions
c) Effects
d) Both Preconditions & Effects

Explanation: The state-space search takes both precondition and effects into account for solving a problem.

3. How many ways are available to solve the state-space search?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: There are two ways available to solve the state-space search. They are forward from the initial state and backward from the goal.

4. What is the other name for forward state-space search?
a) Progression planning
b) Regression planning
c) Test planning
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: It is sometimes called as progression planning, because it moves in the forward direction.

5. How many states are available in state-space search?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: There are four states available in state-space search. They are initial state, actions, goal test and step cost.

6. What is the main advantage of backward state-space search?
a) Cost
b) Actions
c) Relevant actions
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The main advantage of backward search will allow us to consider only relevant actions.

7. What is the other name of the backward state-space search?
a) Regression planning
b) Progression planning
c) State planning
d) Test planning

Explanation: Backward state-space search will find the solution from goal to the action, So it is called as Regression planning.

8. What is meant by consistent in state-space search?
a) Change in the desired literals
b) Not any change in the literals
c) No change in goal state
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Consistent means that the completed actions will not undo any desired literals.

9. What will happen if a predecessor description is generated that is satisfied by the initial state of the planning problem?
a) Success
b) Error
c) Compilation
d) Termination

Explanation: None.

10. Which approach is to pretend that a pure divide and conquer algorithm will work?
a) Goal independence
b) Subgoal independence
c) Both Goal & Subgoal independence
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Subgoal independence approach is to pretend that a pure divide and conquer algorithm will work for admissible heuristics.

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11. The process by which the brain incrementally orders actions needed to complete a specific task is referred as ______________
a) Planning problem
b) Partial order planning
c) Total order planning
d) Both Planning problem & Partial order planning

Explanation: Definition of partial order planning.

12. To complete any task, the brain needs to plan out the sequence by which to execute the behavior. One way the brain does this is with a partial-order plan.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: None.

13. In partial order plan.
A. Relationships between the actions of the behavior are set prior to the actions
B. Relationships between the actions of the behavior are not set until absolutely necessary
Choose the correct option.
a) A is true
b) B is true
c) Either A or B can be true depending upon situation
d) Neither A nor B is true

Explanation: Relationship between behavior and actions is established dynamically.

14. Partial-order planning exhibits the Principle of Least Commitment, which contributes to the efficiency of this planning system as a whole.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: None.

15. Following is/are the components of the partial order planning.
a) Bindings
b) Goal
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: Bindings: The bindings of the algorithm are the connections between specific variables in the action. Bindings, as ordering, only occur when it is absolutely necessary.
Causal Links: Causal links in the algorithm are those that categorically order actions. They are not the specific order (1,2,3) of the actions, rather the general order as in Action 2 must come somewhere after Action 1, but before Action 2.
Plan Space: The plan space of the algorithm is constrained between its start and finish. The algorithm starts, producing the initial state and finishes when all parts of the goal is been achieved.

16. Partial-order planning is the opposite of total-order planning.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Partial-order planning is the opposite of total-order planning, in which actions are sequenced all at once and for the entirety of the task at hand.

17. Sussman Anomaly can be easily and efficiently solved by partial order planning.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sussman_Anomaly.

18. Sussman Anomaly illustrates a weakness of interleaved planning algorithm.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Sussman Anomaly illustrates a weakness of non interleaved planning algorithm.

19. One the main drawback of this type of planning system is that it requires a lot of computational powers at each node.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: None.

20. What are you predicating by the logic: ۷x: €y: loyalto(x, y).
a) Everyone is loyal to someone
b) Everyone is loyal to all
c) Everyone is not loyal to someone
d) Everyone is loyal

Explanation: ۷x denotes Everyone or all, and €y someone and loyal to is the proposition logic making map x to y.

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21. A plan that describe how to take actions in levels of increasing refinement and specificity is ____________
a) Problem solving
b) Planning
c) Non-hierarchical plan
d) Hierarchical plan

Explanation: A plan that describes how to take actions in levels of increasing refinement and specificity is Hierarchical (e.g., “Do something” becomes the more specific “Go to work,” “Do work,” “Go home.”) Most plans are hierarchical in nature.

22. A constructive approach in which no commitment is made unless it is necessary to do so, is ____________
a) Least commitment approach
b) Most commitment approach
c) Nonlinear planning
d) Opportunistic planning

Explanation: Because we are not sure about the outcome.

23. Uncertainty arises in the Wumpus world because the agent’s sensors give only ____________
a) Full & Global information
b) Partial & Global Information
c) Partial & local Information
d) Full & local information

Explanation: The Wumpus world is a grid of squares surrounded by walls, where each square can contain agents and objects. The agent (you) always starts in the lower left corner, a square that will be labeled [1, 1]. The agent’s task is to find the gold, return to [1, 1] and climb out of the cave. Therefore, uncertainty is there as the agent gives partial and local information only. Global variable are not goal specific problem solving.

24. Which of the following search belongs to totally ordered plan search?
a) Forward state-space search
b) Hill-climbing search
c) Depth-first search

Explanation: Forward and backward state-space search are particular forms of totally ordered plan search.

25. Which cannot be taken as advantage for totally ordered plan search?
a) Composition
b) State search
c) Problem decomposition
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: As the search explore only linear sequences of actions, So they cannot take advantage of problem decomposition.

26. What is the advantage of totally ordered plan in constructing the plan?
a) Reliability
b) Flexibility
c) Easy to use
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: Totally ordered plan has the advantage of flexibility in the order in which it constructs the plan.

27. Which strategy is used for delaying a choice during search?
a) First commitment
b) Least commitment
c) Both First & Least commitment
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The general strategy of delaying a choice during search is called the least commitment strategy.

28. Which algorithm places two actions into a plan without specifying which should come first?
a) Full-order planner
b) Total-order planner
c) Semi-order planner
d) Partial-order planner

Explanation: Any planning algorithm that can place two actions into a plan without specifying which should come first is called partial-order planner.

29. How many possible plans are available in partial-order solution?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 6

Explanation: The partial-order solution corresponds to six possible total-order plans.

30. What is the other name of each and every total-order plans?
a) Polarization
b) Linearization
c) Solarization
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Each and every total order plan is also called as linearization of the partial-order plan.

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31. What are present in the empty plan?
a) Start
b) Finish
c) Modest
d) Both Start & Finish

Explanation: The ’empty’ plan contains just the start and finish actions.

32. What are not present in start actions?
a) Preconditions
b) Effect
c) Finish
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Start has no precondition and has as its effects all the literals in the initial state of the planning problem.

33. What are not present in finish actions?
a) Preconditions
b) Effect
c) Finish
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Finish has no effects and has as its preconditions the goal literals of the planning algorithm.

34. Which can be adapted for planning algorithms?
a) Most-constrained variable
b) Most-constrained literal
c) Constrained
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The most-constrained variable heuristic from CSPs can be adapted for planning algorithm and seems to work well.

#### Module 05

1. Using logic to represent and reason we can represent knowledge about the world with facts and rules.
a) True
b) False

2. Uncertainty arises in the wumpus world because the agent’s sensors give only ___________
a) Full & Global information
b) Partial & Global Information
c) Partial & local Information
d) Full & local information

Explanation: The Wumpus world is a grid of squares surrounded by walls, where each square can contain agents and objects. The agent (you) always starts in the lower left corner, a square that will be labeled [1, 1]. The agent’s task is to find the gold, return to [1, 1] and climb out of the cave. So uncertainty is there as the agent gives partial and local information only. Global variable are not goal specific problem solving.

3. A Hybrid Bayesian network contains ___________
a) Both discrete and continuous variables
b) Only Discrete variables
c) Only Discontinuous variable
d) Both Discrete and Discontinuous variable

Explanation: To specify a Hybrid network, we have to specify two new kinds of distributions: the conditional distribution for continuous variables given discrete or continuous parents, and the conditional distribution for a discrete variable given continuous parents.

4. How is Fuzzy Logic different from conventional control methods?
a) IF and THEN Approach
b) FOR Approach
c) WHILE Approach
d) DO Approach

Explanation: FL incorporates a simple, rule-based IF X AND Y THEN Z approach to a solving control problem rather than attempting to model a system mathematically.

5. If a hypothesis says it should be positive, but in fact it is negative, we call it ___________
a) A consistent hypothesis
b) A false negative hypothesis
c) A false positive hypothesis
d) A specialized hypothesis

Explanation: Consistent hypothesis go with examples, If the hypothesis says it should be negative but in fact it is positive, it is false negative. If a hypothesis says it should be positive, but in fact it is negative, it is false positive. In a specialized hypothesis we need to have certain restrict or special conditions.

6. The primitives in probabilistic reasoning are random variables.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The primitives in probabilistic reasoning are random variables. Just like primitives in Propositional Logic are propositions. A random variable is not in fact a variable, but a function from a sample space S to another space, often the real numbers.

7. Which is true for Decision theory?
a) Decision Theory = Probability theory + utility theory
b) Decision Theory = Inference theory + utility theory
c) Decision Theory = Uncertainty + utility theory
d) Decision Theory = Probability theory + preference

Explanation: The Wumpus world is a grid of squares surrounded by walls, where each square can contain agents and objects. The agent (you) always starts in the lower left corner, a square that will be labeled [1, 1]. The agent’s task is to find the gold, return to [1, 1] and climb out of the cave. So uncertainty is there as the agent gives partial and local information only. Global variable are not goal specific problem solving.

8. A constructive approach in which no commitment is made unless it is necessary to do so is ___________
a) Least commitment approach
b) Most commitment approach
c) Nonlinear planning
d) Opportunistic planning

Explanation: Because we are not sure about the outcome.

9. What is the extraction of the meaning of utterance?
a) Syntactic
b) Semantic
c) Pragmatic
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Semantic analysis is used to extract the meaning from the group of sentences.

10. What is the process of associating a FOL expression with a phrase?
a) Interpretation
b) Augmented reality
c) Semantic interpretation
d) Augmented interpretation

Explanation: Semantic interpretation is the process of associating a FOL expression with a phrase.

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11. What is meant by compositional semantics?
a) Determining the meaning
b) Logical connectives
c) Semantics
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Compositional semantics is the process of determining the meaning of P*Q from P, Q and *.

12. What is used to augment a grammar for arithmetic expression with semantics?
a) Notation
b) DCG notation
c) Constituent
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: DCG notation is used to augment a grammar for arithmetic expression with semantics and it is used to build a parse tree.

13. What can’t be done in the semantic interpretation?
a) Logical term
b) Complete logical sentence
c) Both Logical term & Complete logical sentence
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Some kind of sentence in the semantic interpretation can’t be logical term nor a complete logical sentence.

14. How many verb tenses are there in the English language?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: There are three types of tenses available in english language are past, present and future.

15. Which is used to mediate between syntax and semantics?
a) Form
b) Intermediate form
c) Grammer
d) All of the mentioned

16. What is meant by quasi-logical form?
a) Sits between syntactic and logical form
b) Logical connectives
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: It can be translated into a regular first-order logical sentence, So that it Sits between syntactic and logical form.

17. How many types of quantification are available in artificial intelligence?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: There are two types of quantification available. They are universal and existential.

18. What kind of interpretation is done by adding context-dependant information?
a) Semantic
b) Syntactic
c) Pragmatic
d) None of the mentioned

19. How many issues are available in describing degree of belief?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: The main issues for degree of belief are nature of the sentences and the dependance of degree of the belief.

20. What is used for probability theory sentences?
a) Conditional logic
b) Logic
c) Extension of propositional logic
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The version of probability theory we present uses an extension of propositional logic for its sentences.

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21. Where does the dependance of experience is reflected in prior probability sentences?
a) Syntactic distinction
b) Semantic distinction
c) Both Syntactic & Semantic distinction
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The dependance on experience is reflected in the syntactic distinction between prior probability statements.

22. Where does the degree of belief is applied?
a) Propositions
b) Literals
c) Variables
d) Statements

23. How many formal languages are used for stating propositions?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: The two formal languages used for stating propositions are propositional logic and first-order logic.

24. What is the basic element of a language?
a) Literal
b) Variable
c) Random variable
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The basic element for a language is the random variable, which can be thought as a part of world and its status is initially unknown.

25. How many types of random variables are available?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: The three types of random variables are boolean, discrete and continuous.

26. Which is the complete specification of the state of the world?
a) Atomic event
b) Complex event
c) Simple event
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: An atomic event is the complete specification of the state of the world about which the event is uncertain.

27. Which variable cannot be written in entire distribution as a table?
a) Discrete
b) Continuous
c) Both Discrete & Continuous
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: For continuous variables, it is not possible to write out the entire distribution as a table.

28. What is meant by probability density function?
a) Probability distributions
b) Continuous variable
c) Discrete variable
d) Probability distributions for Continuous variables

29. How many terms are required for building a bayes model?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Explanation: The three required terms are a conditional probability and two unconditional probability.

30. What is needed to make probabilistic systems feasible in the world?
a) Reliability
b) Crucial robustness
c) Feasibility
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: On a model-based knowledge provides the crucial robustness needed to make probabilistic system feasible in the real world.

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31. Where does the bayes rule can be used?
a) Solving queries
b) Increasing complexity
c) Decreasing complexity

Explanation: Bayes rule can be used to answer the probabilistic queries conditioned on one piece of evidence.

32. What does the bayesian network provides?
a) Complete description of the domain
b) Partial description of the domain
c) Complete description of the problem
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: A Bayesian network provides a complete description of the domain.

33. How the entries in the full joint probability distribution can be calculated?
a) Using variables
b) Using information
c) Both Using variables & information
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Every entry in the full joint probability distribution can be calculated from the information in the network.

34. How the bayesian network can be used to answer any query?
a) Full distribution
b) Joint distribution
c) Partial distribution
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: If a bayesian network is a representation of the joint distribution, then it can solve any query, by summing all the relevant joint entries.

35. How the compactness of the bayesian network can be described?
a) Locally structured
b) Fully structured
c) Partial structure
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The compactness of the bayesian network is an example of a very general property of a locally structured system.

36. To which does the local structure is associated?
a) Hybrid
b) Dependant
c) Linear
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Local structure is usually associated with linear rather than exponential growth in complexity.

37. Which condition is used to influence a variable directly by all the others?
a) Partially connected
b) Fully connected
c) Local connected
d) None of the mentioned

38. What is the consequence between a node and its predecessors while creating bayesian network?
a) Functionally dependent
b) Dependant
c) Conditionally independent
d) Both Conditionally dependant & Dependant

Explanation: The semantics to derive a method for constructing bayesian networks were led to the consequence that a node can be conditionally independent of its predecessors.

#### Module 06

1. What is the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP)?
a) Computer Science
b) Artificial Intelligence
c) Linguistics
d) All of the mentioned

2. NLP is concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: NLP has its focus on understanding the human spoken/written language and converts that interpretation into machine understandable language.

3. What is the main challenge/s of NLP?
a) Handling Ambiguity of Sentences
b) Handling Tokenization
c) Handling POS-Tagging
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: There are enormous ambiguity exists when processing natural language.

4. Modern NLP algorithms are based on machine learning, especially statistical machine learning.
a) True
b) False

5. Choose form the following areas where NLP can be useful.
a) Automatic Text Summarization
c) Information Retrieval
d) All of the mentioned

6. Which of the following includes major tasks of NLP?
a) Automatic Summarization
b) Discourse Analysis
c) Machine Translation
d) All of the mentioned

7. What is Coreference Resolution?
a) Anaphora Resolution
b) Given a sentence or larger chunk of text, determine which words (“mentions”) refer to the same objects (“entities”)
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Anaphora resolution is a specific type of coreference resolution.

8. What is Machine Translation?
a) Converts one human language to another
b) Converts human language to machine language
c) Converts any human language to English
d) Converts Machine language to human language

Explanation: The best known example of machine translation is google translator.

9. The more general task of coreference resolution also includes identifying so-called “bridging relationships” involving referring expressions.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Refer the definition of Coreference Resolution.

10. What is Morphological Segmentation?
a) Does Discourse Analysis
b) Separate words into individual morphemes and identify the class of the morphemes
c) Is an extension of propositional logic
d) None of the mentioned

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11. Given a stream of text, Named Entity Recognition determines which pronoun maps to which noun.
a) False
b) True

Explanation: Given a stream of text, Named Entity Recognition determines which items in the text maps to proper names.

12. Natural Language generation is the main task of Natural language processing.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Natural Language Generation is to Convert information from computer databases into readable human language.

13. OCR (Optical Character Recognition) uses NLP.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Given an image representing printed text, determines the corresponding text.

14. Parts-of-Speech tagging determines ___________
a) part-of-speech for each word dynamically as per meaning of the sentence
b) part-of-speech for each word dynamically as per sentence structure
c) all part-of-speech for a specific word given as input
d) all of the mentioned

Explanation: A Bayesian network provides a complete description of the domain.

15. Parsing determines Parse Trees (Grammatical Analysis) for a given sentence.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Determine the parse tree (grammatical analysis) of a given sentence. The grammar for natural languages is ambiguous and typical sentences have multiple possible analyses. In fact, perhaps surprisingly, for a typical sentence there may be thousands of potential parses (most of which will seem completely nonsensical to a human).

16. IR (information Retrieval) and IE (Information Extraction) are the two same thing.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Information retrieval (IR) – This is concerned with storing, searching and retrieving information. It is a separate field within computer science (closer to databases), but IR relies on some NLP methods (for example, stemming). Some current research and applications seek to bridge the gap between IR and NLP.
Information extraction (IE) – This is concerned in general with the extraction of semantic information from text. This covers tasks such as named entity recognition, Coreference resolution, relationship extraction, etc.

17. Many words have more than one meaning; we have to select the meaning which makes the most sense in context. This can be resolved by ____________
a) Fuzzy Logic
b) Word Sense Disambiguation
c) Shallow Semantic Analysis
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: Shallow Semantic Analysis doesn’t cover word sense disambiguation.

18. Given a sound clip of a person or people speaking, determine the textual representation of the speech.
a) Text-to-speech
b) Speech-to-text
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: NLP is required to linguistic analysis.

19. Speech Segmentation is a subtask of Speech Recognition.
a) True
b) False

20. In linguistic morphology _____________ is the process for reducing inflected words to their root form.
a) Rooting
b) Stemming
c) Text-Proofing
d) Both Rooting & Stemming