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[MCQ] Distributed Computing

Exit Intent

Module 01

1.Resources and clients transparency that allows movement within a system is called ____________________
(A) Mobility transparency
(B) Concurrency transparency
(C) Replication transparency
(D) Performance transparency
answer :A

2.A distributed system is defined as a collection of autonomous computers linked by a network with software designed to produce an integrated computing facility. True or False?
(A) FALSE
(B) TRUE
answer: B

3.Which amongst the following is not an advantage of Distributed systems?

(A) Resource sharing
(B) Incremental growth
(C) Reliability
(D) None of the above
answer: C

4.If one site fails in distributed system, ___________
(A) the remaining sites can continue operating
(B) all the sites will stop working
(C) directly connected sites will stop working
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: A

5The capability of a system to adapt the increased service load is called _________
(A) c.apacity
(B) tolerance
(C) scalability
(D) none of the mentioned
answer:C

6.What are characteristic of Network Operating Systems ?
(A) Users are aware of multiplicity of machines
(B) They are transparent
(C) They are simple to use
(D) All of the mentioned
answer : A

7.What is the characteristics of atomicity ?
(A) Use communication links
(B) One processor as coordinator which handles all requests
(C) When responses are received from all processes, then process can enter its Critical Section
(D) All operations associated are executed to completion or none are performed

answer : D
8.Network operating system runs on ___________
(A) every system in the network
(B) server
(C) both server and every system in the network
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: B
9.The transparency that enables multiple instances of resources to be used, is called ____________
(A) Performance transparency
(B) Scaling transparency
(C) Concurrency transparency
(D) Replication transparency
answer:D

10.A set of highly integrated machines that run the same process in parallel is known to be ___________

(A) Space based
(B) Loosely coupled
(C) Tightly coupled
(D) Peer-to-Peer
answer:C
11. Which of the following will be true distributed system
(A) tightly-coupled software on loosely-coupled hardware
(B) loosely-coupled software on tightly-coupled hardware
(C) tightly-coupled software on tightly-coupled hardware
(D) loosely-coupled software on loosely-coupled hardware
answerA
12.Distributed systems should ?
(A) high security
(B) have better resource sharing
(C) better system utilization
(D) low system overhead
answer:B
13.Scalability basically refers to the size of the network that is to be used and it consists for various sizes. Thus this may create some problems in the network. To solve the scalability problem, which are basically three techniques for scaling? I. Hiding communication latencies II. Distribution III. Replication
(A) I, III
(B) II, III
(C) I, II
(D) I, II, III
answer: D
14.Distributed OS works on the ________ principle.
(A) File Foundation
(B) Multi system image
(C) Single system image
(D) Networking image
answer:C
15.Distributed systems have __________
(A) high security
(B) better resource sharing
(C) better system utilization
(D) low system overhead
answer:B
16.What is not true about distributed system ?
(A) It is a collection of processor
(B) All processors are synchronized
(C) They do not share memory
(D) None of the mentioned
answer:B
17.What are characteristics of Distributed Operating system ?
(A) Access is done like local resources
(B) Users are aware of multiplicity of machines
(C) Users are aware of multiplicity of machines
(D) They have multiple zones to access files
answer:A
18.In distributed file system, when a file’s physical storage location changes ________________
(A) file name need to be changed
(B) file name need not to be changed
(C) file’s host name need to be changed
(D) file’s local name need to be changed
answer:B
19.All the resources are tightly coupled in the computing paradigm of __________
(A) Cloud computing
(B) Parallel computing
(C) Distributed computing
(D) Centralized computing
answer:D
20The transparency that enables accessing local and remote resources using identical operations is called ____________
(A) Access transparency
(B) Concurrency transparency
(C) Performance transparency
(D) Scaling transparency
answer: A
21Individual wires from machine to machine, with many different wiring patterns in use is an example of _________
(A) Switched
(B) Bus
(C) Both
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: A
22.There are four requirements in the design of a distributed system. Choose the correct combination from the list below.
(A) Network performance, Quality of Service (QoS), Caching and replication, Dependability issues
(B) Network dependency, Quantity of Service (QoS), Cookies and replication, Dependability issues.
(C) Network integrity, Quality of Software (QoS), Caching and alteration, Dependability issues
(D) Network Accessibility, Quality of hardware (QoH), Caching and replication, Dependability issues.
answer: A
23.Concurrency is one of the intrinsic characteristics of distributed systems. Here, Parallel executions occurs because __________
(A) Many users simultaneously invoke commands or interact with (the same) application programs.
(B) Many server processes run concurrently, each corresponding to a single request from a client process.
(C) A and B Both
(D) None of these
answer: C
24.”Consider the two statements. (A) A network operating system, the users access remote resources in the same manner as local resource. (B) In a distributed operating system, the user can access remote resources either by logging into the appropriate remote machine or transferring data from the remote machine to their own machine. Which of the statement is true?
(A) A true, B false
(B) B true, A false
(C) Both A and B false
(D) Both A and B true
answer: C
25.Centralized computing covers many data centers and ________
(A) Minicomputers
(B) Mainframe computers
(C) Microcomputers
(D) Supercomputers
answer: D
26.Data centers and centralized computing covers many and _________________
(A) Microcomputers
(B) Minicomputers
(C) Mainframe computers
(D) Supercomputers
answer: D
27.The characteristics of a distributed system are :
(A) Resource sharing, heterogeneity, openness, security
(B) Scalability, fault handling
(C) Concurrency, transparency
(D) ALL are acceptable answers
answer: D
28.Which are the character characteristics of a decentralized algorithms: I. No machine has complete information about the system state. II. Machines make decisions based only on local information. III. Failure of one machine does not damage the algorithm. IV. There is no implicit assumption that a global clock exist
(A) I, II, IV
(B) II, III, IV
(C) I, II, III, IV
(D) I, II, III
answer: C
29.What is not a major reason for building distributed systems ?
(A) Resource sharing
(B) Computation speedup
(C) Reliability
(D) Simplicity
answer: D
30.What are design issues in distributed system structure ?
(A) Scalability
(B) Fault-tolerance
(C) Flexibility
(D) All of the mentioned
answer: D

31.What are the characteristics of tightly coupled system ? I. Different clock II. Use communication links III. Same clock IV. Distributed systems

(A) II, III and IV
(B) I and IV
(C) I, II and III
(D) I
answer: A
32.Location transparency allows for which of the following?
(A) Users to treat the data as if it is at one location
(B) Programmers to treat the data as if it is at one location
(C) Managers to treat the data as if it is at one location
(D) All of the above.
answer: D
33.All the resources are shared and integrated within one OS, in the computing paradigm named _________
(A) Distributed computing
(B) Centralized computing
(C) Cloud computing
(D) Parallel computing
answer: B
34.What are the Advantages of Distributed Systems over Independent PCs?
(A) Data sharing
(B) Resource Sharing
(C) Communication
(D) All of the above
answer: D

Module 02

1.Which layer is the layer closest to the transmission medium ?
(A) Physical
(B) Data link
(C) Network
(D) Transport

answer: A
2.In a distributed system, information is exchanged through _______
(A) Memory sharing
(B) Message passing
(C) Message passing
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: C
3.RPC (remote procedure call) is initiated by the __________
(A) server
(B) client
(C) both (a) and (b)
(D) neither (a) nor (b)
answer: C
4.In a peer-to-peer architecture, peers can serve as __________
(A) Clients
(B) Servers
(C) Middle-system
(D) Both A and B
answer: D
5.How many layers does Internet model ISO consists of ?
(A) Three
(B) Five
(C) Seven
(D) Eight
answer: C
6.The ___________ layer, which provides the interface that client and server application objects use to interact with each other.
(A) Increasing
(B) Count
(C) Bit
(D) Stub/skeleton
answer: D
7.Desirable features of a good message passing system are _______ I. Simplicity II. Uniform Semantics III. Efficiency IV. Correctness
(A) I,II
(B) II, III
(C) I, IV
(D) I,II, III, IV
answer: D
8.Remote Procedure Calls are used :
(A) for communication between two processes remotely different from each other on the same system
(B) for communication between two processes on the same system
(C) for communication between two processes on separate systems
(D) None of these
answer: C
9.The stub :
(A) transmits the message to the server where the server side stub receives the message and invokes procedure on the server side
(B) packs the parameters into a form transmittable over the network
(C) locates the port on the server
(D) all of the mentioned
answer: D
10.In Message-Passing Systems ,A message-passing facility provides at least two operations:
(A) send(message) and delete(message)
(B) delete(message) and receive (message)
(C) send(message) and receive(message)
(D) write(message) and delete(message)
answer: C
11.A process that is based on IPC mechanism which executes on different systems and can communicate with other processes using message based communication, is called ________.
(A) Local Procedure Call
(B) Inter Process Communication
(C) Remote Procedure Call
(D) Remote Machine Invocation
answer: C
12.The local operating system on the server machine passes the incoming packets to the _________
(A) server stub
(B) client stub
(C) client operating system
(D) none of the above
answer: A
13.Machine that places the request to access the data is generally called as __________.
(A) Server Machine
(B) Client Machine
(C) Request Machine
(D) None of the above
answer: B
14.An RPC (remote procedure call) is initiated by the ________
(A) server
(B) client
(C) both (a) and (b)
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: B
15.The applications of the Client and Server Model are ___________
(A) World Wide Web
(B) Network Printing
(C) Email
(D) All of the mentioned
answer: D
16________________ provides programmers a familiar programming model by extending the local procedure call to a distributed environment.
(A) Distributed environment
(B) Permanent procedure call
(C) Process and file
(D) Remote procedure call
answer: D
17.An architecture where clients first communicate the server for data then format and display it to the users, is known as ___________
(A) Client/Server architecture
(B) Three-tier architecture
(C) Two-tier architecture
(D) Peer-to-Peer architecture
answer: A
18.What are the different ways in which clients and servers are dispersed across machines ?
(A) Servers may not run on dedicated machines
(B) Servers and clients can be on same machines
(C) Distribution cannot be interposed between a OS and the file system
(D) OS cannot be distributed with the file system a part of that distribution
answer: B
19.What are the advantages of client-server model?
(A) Efficiency
(B) Simplicity
(C) Two system calls send and receive
(D) All of the above
answer: D
20.The single most important difference between a distributed system and a uniprocessor system is the ________
(A) Interprocess communication
(B) Remote procedure call
(C) Both
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: A
21.All communication in distributed system is based on message passing True/False ?
(A) TRUE
(B) FALSE
answer: A
22_________ is an object acting as a gateway for the client side.
(A) skeleton
(B) stub
(C) remote
(D) server
answer: B
23.Types of Buffering are ______________
(A) Null Buffer
(B) Finite Bound Buffer
(C) both (a) and (b)
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: C
24.Message passing provides a mechanism to allow processes to communicate and to synchronize their actions ________
(A) By sharing the same address space
(B) without sharing the same address space
(C) by sharing the same process number and Process Identifier
(D) None of the above
answer: A
25Which are two fundamental models of interprocess communication: I. Shared memory II. Message passing. III. Independent IV. Cooperating
(A) I and II
(B) II and III
(C) III and IV
(D) I and IV
answer: A
26The TCP/IP reference model has 4 layers. Choose the correct layers.
(A) Host-to-network layer; network or IP (Internet Protocol) layer; transport or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) layer; application layer
(B) Host-to-host layer; network or IP (Intranet Protocol) layer; transport or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) layer; application layer
(C) Network-to-network layer; network or IP (Internet Protocol) layer; transport or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) layer; application layer
(D) Network-to-host layer; FTP (File Transfer Protocol) layer; transport or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) layer; application layer
answer: A
27.Which layer is responsible for The process-to-process delivery ?
(A) Network
(B) Transport
(C) Application
(D) Physical
answer: B
28.In remote procedure call, the client program must be bound with a small library procedure called __________
(A) Server stub
(B) Marshalling
(C) Local Procedure Call
(D) Client hub
answer: D
29.Internet provides _______ for remote login.
(A) telnet
(B) http
(C) ftp
(D) RPC
answer: A
30.The header usually consists of the following elements in IPC I. Sequence number II. Structural information III. Address IV. File mode(Read/ Write
(A) I,III, IV
(B) I,II, III
(C) I, II, IV
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: B
31.Networks can be classified into three different geographical scopes. I. LAN – Land Area Network II. LAN – Local Area Network III. MAN – Mass Area Network IV. MAN – Metropolitan Area Network V. WAN – Wide Area Network VI. WAN – World Area Network
(A) I, III, V
(B) I, IV, V
(C) II, IV, V
(D) I, IV, VI
answer: C
32.RPC provides a(an) _____ on the client side, a separate one for each remote procedure.
(A) stub
(B) identifier
(C) name
(D) process identifier
answer: A
33,RPC connectors and message queues are mechanisms for ______
(A) Message retrieving
(B) Message passing
(C) Message delivering
(D) Message Sync-ing
answer: B
34.A global system of interconnected computer networks is known as ________
(A) Ethernet
(B) Intranet
(C) Internet
(D) Ultra-net
answer: C

Module 03

1.What is common problem found in distributed system ?

(A) Process Synchronization
(B) Communication synchronization
(C) Deadlock problem
  (D) Power failure
answer: C
2.If timestamps of two events are same, then the events are ___________________
(A) concurrent
(B) non-concurrent
(C) monotonic
(D) non-monotonic
answer: A
3.If a process is executing in its critical section, ____________________
(A) any other process can also execute in its critical section
(B) no other process can execute in its critical section
(C) one more process can execute in its critical section
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: B
4.A process can enter into its critical section __________________
(A) anytime
(B) when it receives a reply message from its parent process
(C) when it receives a reply message from all other processes in the system
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: C
5.For proper synchronization in distributed systems ____________
(A) prevention from the deadlock is must
(B) prevention from the starvation is must
(C) prevention from the deadlock & starvation is must
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: C
6.In the token passing approach of distributed systems, processes are organized in a ring structure _______________
(A) logically
(B) physically
(C) both logically and physically
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: A
7.In case of failure, a new transaction coordinator can be elected by ____________
(A) Cristian’s Algorithm
(B) Bully algorithm
(C) Both bully and Cristian’s algorithm
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B
8.In distributed systems, election algorithms assumes that __________________
(A) a unique priority number is associated with each active process in system
(B) there is no priority number associated with any process
(C) priority of the processes is not required
(D) none of the mentioned
answer: A
9.According to the ring algorithm, links between processes are ______________________
(A) Bidirectional
(B) Unidirectional
(C) Both bidirectional and unidirectional
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B
10.What are the characteristics of mutual exclusion using centralized approach ?
(A) One processor as coordinator which handles all requests
(B) It requires request,reply and release per critical section entry
(C) The method is free from starvation
(D) All of the mentioned
answer: D
11.What are the characteristics of fully distributed approach ? I. When responses are received from all processes, then process can enter its Critical Section II. When process exits its critical section, the process sends reply messages to all its deferred requests. III. It requires request, reply and release per critical section entry IV. One processor as coordinator which handles all requests
(A) I
(B) I and III
(C) III and IV
(D) I and II
answer: D
12.What are the advantages of token(with rings) passing approach ? I. One processor as coordinator which handles all requests II. No starvation if the ring is unidirectional III. There are many messages passed per section entered if few users want to get in section IV. One processor as coordinator which handles all requests V. Only one message/entry if everyone wants to get in
(A) I, II and V
(B) I, II and IV
(C) II, III and IV
(D) II, IV and V
answer: B
13.Single coordinator approach has the following advantages :
(A) Simple implementation
(B) Simple deadlock handling
(C) Bottleneck
(D) All of the mentioned
answer: D
14.Which are the two complementary deadlock-prevention schemes using time stamps ?
(A) The wait-die & wound-wait scheme
(B) The wait-n-watch scheme
(C) The wound-wait scheme
(D) The wait-wound & wound-wait scheme
answer: A
15.If an old process wants a resource held by a young process, the old one will wait happens in _________
(A) Wait-die
(B) Wound-wait
(C) Both
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: A
16.If an old process wants a resource held by a young process, the old one will preempt the young process wounded and killed, restarts and wait happens in ___________
(A) Wait-die
(B) Wound-wait
(C) Both
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B
17In wound-wait If a young process wants a resource held by an old process, the young process will _____
(A) Killed
(B) Wait
(C) Preempt
(D) Restarts and wait
answer: B
18.Election message is always sent to the process with _______
(A) Lower numbers
(B) Waiting processes
(C) Higher numbers
(D) Requesting Lower number of resources
answer: C
19.Which algorithms are used to handle mutual exclusion in distributed systems?
(A) Centralized
(B) Distributed
(C) Token ring
(D) All of the mentioned
answer: D
20.Which algorithms are used for selecting a process to act as coordinator or sequencer? I. Centralized algorithm II. Election algorithm III. Ring algorithm IV. Chandy-Misra-Haas algorithm
(A) II and IV
(B) II, III, IV
(C) II and III
(D) II
answer: C
21.What is UTC ?
(A) Universal Centralized Time
(B) Unique Coordinated Time
(C) Universal Coordinated Time
(D) Unique Centralized Time
answer: C
22.In Cristian algorithm the time sever is ________
(A) Passive
(B) Active
(C) Some internal passive some interval active
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: A
23.What are the problems of clock synchronization in distributed operating systems ? I. Processses make decision based only on local information II. The relevent information is scattered among multiple machines III. A single point of failure in the system should be avoided IV. No common clock or other precise global time source exists
(A) II, III and IV
(B) I, II and IV
(C) I, III and IV
(D) I, II, III, IV
answer: D
24.A ____________is a quartz crystal that oscillates at a well-defined frequency.
(A) Counter register
(B) Quartz crystal
(C) Constant register
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B
25.The ______________ is used to store a constant value that is decided based on the frequency of oscillation of the quartz crystal.
(A) Counter register
(B) Quartz crystal
(C) Constant register
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: C
26.The ____________ is used to keep track of the oscillations of the quartz crystal.
(A) Counter register
(B) Quartz crystal
(C) Constant register
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: A
27.The value in the counter register is ____________ by 1 for each oscillation of the quartz crystal.
(A) Decremented
(B) Incremented
answer: A
28.An external time source that is often used as a reference for synchronizing computer clocks with real time is the ______________
(A) Universal Centralized Time
(B) Unique Coordinated Time
(C) Unique Centralized Time
(D) Universal Coordinated Time
answer: D
29.Two clocks are said to be synchronized at a particular instance of time if the difference in time values of the two clocks is less than some specified constant. The difference in time values of two clocks is called ___________.
(A) Clock Frequency
(B) Clock drift
(C) Clock skew
(D) Clock Ticks
answer: C
30.The computer clock differs from the real time clock is known as ___________
(A) Quartz crystal
(B) Clock drift
(C) Clock skew
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B

31.In ________________________ each node periodically sends a message to the time server.

(A) Passive Time Server Centralized Algorithm
(B) Active Time Server Centralized Algorithm
(C) Global Averaging Distributed Algorithms
(D) Localized Averaging Distributed Algorithms
answer: A
32.In Cristian’s Algorithm, 𝑇(𝑛𝑒𝑤 )= ?
(A) 𝑇(𝑛𝑒𝑤 )=𝑇(𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑟)+((𝑇(1)+𝑇(0)-I)/2
(B) 𝑇(𝑛𝑒𝑤 )=𝑇(𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑟)-((𝑇(1)−𝑇(0)-I)/2
(C) 𝑇(𝑛𝑒𝑤 )=𝑇(𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑟)+((𝑇(1)−𝑇(0)-I)/2
(D) 𝑇(𝑛𝑒𝑤 )=𝑇(𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑟)-((𝑇(1)+𝑇(0)-I)/2
answer: C
33.In Cristian’s Algorithm, Accuracy of Result ?
(A) ±(𝑇(1)−𝑇(0))/2 + 𝑇(𝑚𝑖𝑛)
(B) ±(𝑇(1)−𝑇(0))/2 − 𝑇(𝑚𝑖𝑛)
(C) (𝑇(0)−𝑇(1))/2 − 𝑇(𝑚𝑖𝑛)
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B
34.Cristian’s Algorithm is ______________
(A) Passive Time Server Algorithm
(B) Active Time Server Algorithm
(C) both (a) and (b)
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: A
35.Berkeley Algorithm is ____________
(A) Passive Time Server Algorithm
(B) Active Time Server Algorithm
(C) both (a) and (b)
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B
36.The difference between logical and physical clocks ?
(A) Logical clocks measure the time of day and Physical clocks are used to mark relationships among events in a distributed system.
(B) Both are the same
(C) Physical clocks measure the time of day and Logical clocks are used to mark relationships among events in a distributed system.
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: C
37.__________ is a process that prevents multiple threads or processes from accessing shared resources at the same time.
(A) Critical section
(B) Deadlock
(C) Message passing
(D) Mutual Exclusion
answer: D
38.In which algorithm, One process is elected as the coordinator.
(A) Distributed mutual exclusion algorithm
(B) Centralized mutual exclusion algorithm
(C) Token ring algorithm
(D) None of the mentioned
answer: B
39.When resources have multiple instances ________ is used for deadlock Avoidance.
(A) Bankers algorithm
(B) Resource Allocation Graph
(C) Semaphores
(D) All of these
answer: A
40The Bankers algorithm is used ____________
(A) to prevent deadlock
(B) to rectify deadlock
(C) to detect deadlock
(D) to solve deadlock
answer: A

Module 04

1.A process is already split into pieces, called________________.

(A) Tasks
(B) Program
(C) Processors
(D) Routines
answer :A
2.A process is _________________
(A) program in main memory
(B) Program in cache memory
(C) program in secondary storage
(D) program in execution
answer : D
3.Processes on the remote systems are identified by _________________
(A) host ID
(B) host name and identifier
(C) identifier
(D) process ID
answer :B
4.What are characteristics of processor in distributed system ?
(A) They vary in size and function
(B) They are same in size and function
(C) They are manufactured with single purpose
(D) They are real-time devices
answer :A
5.What are characteristics of process migration ?
(A) transfer data by entire file or immediate portion required
(B) transfer the computation rather than the data
(C) execute an entire process or parts of it at different sites
(D) none of the mentioned

answer :C

6.What are examples of state information ?
(A) opened files and their clients
(B) file descriptors and file handles
(C) current file position pointers
(D) all of the mentioned
answer : D
7.What are the characteristics of stateless server ?
(A) Easier to implement
(B) They are not fault-tolerant upon client or server failures
(C) They store all information file server
(D) They are redundant to keep data safe
answer :A
8.There is no need to establish and terminate a connection through open and close operation in ___________
(A) stateless file service
(B) stateful file service
(C) both stateless and stateful file service
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :A
9.In distributed systems, a logical clock is associated with ______________
(A) each instruction
(B) each process
(C) each register
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :B
10.In distributed system, each processor has its own ___________
(A) local memory
(B) clock
(C) both local memory and clock
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :C

11.What is a stateless file server?
(A) It keeps tracks of states of different objects
(B) It maintains internally no state information at all
(C) It maintains some information in them
(D) None of the mentioned
answer :B
12.In the non blocking send __________
(A) the sending process keeps sending until the message is received
(B) the sending process sends the message and resumes operation
(C) the sending process keeps sending until it receives a message
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :B
13.In ____________ location policies a random node is polled to check its state and the task is transferred if it will not be overloaded; polling is continued until a suitable node is found.
(A) Threshold
(B) Shortest
(C) Bidding
(D) Pairing
answer :A
14.The technology used to distribute service requests to resources is referred to as _____________
(A) load performing
(B) load scheduling
(C) load balancing
(D) all of the mentioned
answer :C
15.Which of the following network resources can be load balanced?
(A) Connections through intelligent switches
(B) DNS
(C) Storage resources
(D) All of the mentioned
answer : D
16.The technology used to distribute service requests to resources is referred to as:
(A) Load performing
(B) Load scheduling
(C) Load balancing
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :C
17.Hard real time operating system has ______________ jitter than a soft real time operating system.
(A) less
(B) more
(C) equal
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :A
18.In case of good process migration mechanism, _____________ means failure of any node other than the one on which the process is running should not affect the execution of the process.
(A) Robustness
(B) Efficiency
(C) Transparent
(D) Interference
answer :A
19.________________ is the relocation of a process from its current location to another node.
(A) Process migration
(B) Load balancing
(C) RPC
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :A
20.Process migration involves__________________
(A) Selection of a process to be migrated
(B) Selection of destination system or node
(C) Actual transfer of the selected process to the destination system or node
(D) All A, B and C
answer : D
21.A process can be ___________
(A) single threaded
(B) multithreaded
(C) both single threaded and multithreaded
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :C
22.Termination of the process terminates ___________
(A) first thread of the process
(B) first two threads of the process
(C) all threads within the process
(D) no thread within the process
answer :C
23._______________ are implemented by users.
(A) Kernel threads
(B) User threads
(C) both kernel threads and user threads
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :B
24._______________ are recognized by OS.
(A) kernel threads
(B) user threads
(C) both kernel threads and user threads
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :A
25.A thread is also called ___________
(A) Light Weight Process
(B) Heavy Weight Process
(C) Process
(D) None of the mentioned
answer :A

26.A thread shares its resources(like data section, code section, open files, signals) with ___________

(A) other process similar to the one that the thread belongs to
(B) other threads that belong to similar processes
(C) other threads that belong to the same process
(D) all of the mentioned
answer :C
27.In ____________ the process consists of a single dispatcher thread and multiple worker threads.
(A) Team model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Pipeline model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :B
28.__________________ is often used for implementing specialized threads within a process.
(A) Team model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Pipeline model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :A
29.In _____________ , all threads behave as equal.
(A) Pipeline model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Team model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :C
30.In _____________ , The output of the last thread in the pipeline is the final output of the process to which the threads belong.
(A) Pipeline model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Team model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :A
31.A thread shares its resources(like data section, code section, open files, signals) with ___________
(A) other process similar to the one that the thread belongs to
(B) other threads that belong to similar processes
(C) other threads that belong to the same process
(D) all of the mentioned
answer :C
32.In ____________ the process consists of a single dispatcher thread and multiple worker threads.
(A) Team model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Pipeline model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :B
33.__________________ is often used for implementing specialized threads within a process.
(A) Team model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Pipeline model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :A
34.In _____________ , all threads behave as equal.
(A) Pipeline model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Team model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :C
35.In _____________ , The output of the last thread in the pipeline is the final output of the process to which the threads belong.
(A) Pipeline model
(B) Dispatcher worker model
(C) Team model
(D) All of the mentioned
answer :A
36.What type of fault remains in the system for some period and then disappears?
(A) Transient
(B) Intermittent
(C) Permanent
(D) None of the mentioned
answer :A
37.The loose connection to network switch may cause intermittent connection problems” is example of _____________
(A) Transient fault
(B) Permanent fault
(C) Intermittent fault
(D) None of the mentioned
answer :C
38.__________faults can be easily identified and the components can be replaced
(A) Transient fault
(B) Permanent fault
(C) Intermittent fault
(D) None of the mentioned
answer :B
39.Software bug or disk head crash are example of _____________
(A) Transient
(B) Intermittent
(C) Permanent
(D) none of the mentioned
answer :C
40.In ____________ , Extra bits are added to data to handle fault tolerance by detecting errors.
(A) Time redundancy
(B) Physical redundancy
(C) Information redundancy
(D) None of the mentioned
answer :C

Module 05

1._____ transparency hides that a resource may move to the another location.
a.Access transparency
b.Migrationtransparency
c.Replicationtransparency
d.Failure transparency
answer: a
Migration transparency

2 ._________ transparency hides failure and recovery of a resources.
a.Location transparency
b.Access transparency
c.Failure transparency
d.Migrationtransparency
answer:c
Failure transparency

3 Which of the following is a form of distributed information system?
a.Home system
b.Transaction Processing System
c.Pervasive system Enterprise Resource
d.Planning system
answer:b
TransactionProcessing System

4 Which of the following is not a distributed computing model?
a.Processor-pool model
b.Workstation server model
c.Failure model
d.peer-to-peer
answer:c
Failure model

5.Which of the following is not a layer in architecture of grid computing?
a.Collective layer
b.Connectivity layer
c.Remote reference layer
d.Fabric layer
answer: c
Remote reference layer

6 NOS supports ________ OS in all nodes.
a.Same
b.Different
c.Linux based
d.Windows Based
answer:b
Different

7 DOS gives the view of ___________ System.
a.Multi-processor
b.Uniprocessor
c.Multi-controller
d.Virtual Uniprocessor
answer:d
Virtual Uniprocessor

8 Fault tolerance in distributed systems is the method used for ___________.
a.Heterogeneity
b.Security
c.Flexibility
d.Reliability
answer:d
Reliability

9.Hiding the complicacy of the system from user in distributed environment is known as _____.
a.Heterogeneity
b.Security
c.Flexibility
d.Transparency
answer:d
Transparency

10 A distributed system is a collection of _______________ computers that appears to its users as a single coherent system.
a.Independent
b.Interconnected
c.Interrelated
d.Shared
answer:b
independent

11 Which of the following is correct about migration transparency?
a.Local and remote objects should be accessed in a uniform way
b.Objects are referred by logical names which hide the physical location of the objects
c.Movement of object from one system to the other is invisible to user
d.Sharing of objects without interference
answer:c
Movement of object moving from one system to the other is invisible to user

12 Middleware called __________ for connecting independent. systems together and makes them work together. 
a.Homogeneous
b.Glue-code
c.Heterogeneous
d.Concurrent
answer:c
Glue-code

13 MPI_bsend is equivalent to _____.
a.One way RPC
b.Two wayRPC
c.Synchronous RPC
d.Asynchronous RPC
answer:a
One way RPC

14 _______socket primitive attach local address to the socket
a.Accept
b.Bind
c.Connect
d.Listen
answer:b
Bind

15 The calls, whose caller has expired due to node crash, is known as
a.orphan
b.dead
c.alive
d.request
answer:a
orphan

16 In which type of communication, messages are stored as long as sender and receiver are executing?
a.Persistent
b.Transient
c.RMI based Communication
d.RPC based Communicationanswer:b
Transient

17 Amazon SQS is an example of _______.
a.RPC
b.RMI
c.Group communication
d.Message Queuing System
answer:d
Message Queuing System

18 The client stub is called by the __.
a.server
b.client
c.host
d.client and server
answer:b
client

19 Which ordering uses global timestamps as message id?
a.Total ordering
b.FIFO ordering
c.Causal Ordering
d.Absolute Ordering
answer:d
Absolute Ordering

20 Isosynchronous is a type of which communication _____.
a.MOM
b.IPC
c.Stream Oriented Communication
d.Group Communication
answer:c
Stream Oriented Communication

Module 06

1. What are the different ways in which clients and servers are dispersed across machines?
a) Servers may not run on dedicated machines
b) Servers and clients can be on same machines
c) Distribution cannot be interposed between a OS and the file system
d) OS cannot be distributed with the file system a part of that distribution
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

2. What are not the characteristics of a DFS?
a) login transparency and access transparency
b) Files need not contain information about their physical location
c) No Multiplicity of users
d) No Multiplicity if files
Answer: c
Explanation: None.

3. What are characteristic of a DFS?
a) Fault tolerance
b) Scalability
c) Heterogeneity of the system
d) Upgradation
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

4. What are the different ways file accesses take place?
a) sequential access
b) direct access
c) indexed sequential access
d) all of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

5. Which is not a major component of a file system?
a) Directory service
b) Authorization service
c) Shadow service
d) System service
Answer: c
Explanation: None.

6. What are the different ways mounting of the file system?
a) boot mounting
b) auto mounting
c) explicit mounting
d) all of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

7. What is the advantage of caching in remote file access?
a) Reduced network traffic by retaining recently accessed disk blocks
b) Faster network access
c) Copies of data creates backup automatically
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: a
Explanation: None.

8. What is networked virtual memory?
a) Caching
b) Segmentation
c) RAM disk
d) None of the mentioned

9. What are the examples of state information?
a) opened files and their clients
b) file descriptors and file handles
c) current file position pointers
d) all of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

10. Which is not an example of state information?
a) Mounting information
b) Description of HDD space
c) Session keys
d) Lock status
Answer: b
Explanation: None

11. What is a stateless file server?
a) It keeps tracks of states of different objects
b) It maintains internally no state information at all
c) It maintains some information in them
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

12. What are the characteristics of the stateless server?
a) Easier to implement
b) They are not fault-tolerant upon client or server failures
c) They store all information file server
d) They are redundant to keep data safe
Answer: a
Explanation: None.

13. Implementation of a stateless file server must not follow?
a) Idempotency requirement
b) Encryption of keys
c) File locking mechanism
d) Cache consistency
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

14. What are the advantages of file replication?
a) Improves availability & performance
b) Decreases performance
c) They are consistent
d) Improves speed
Answer: a
Explanation: None.

15. What are characteristic of NFS protocol?
a) Search for file within directory
b) Read a set of directory entries
c) Manipulate links and directories
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

16. What is the coherency of replicated data?
a) All replicas are identical at all times
b) Replicas are perceived as identical only at some points in time
c) Users always read the most recent data in the replicas
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

17. What are the three popular semantic modes?
a) Unix, Coherent & Session semantics
b) Unix, Transaction & Session semantics
c) Coherent, Transaction & Session semantics
d) Session, Coherent semantics
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

18. What are the characteristics of Unix semantics?
a) Easy to implement in a single processor system
b) Data cached on a per process basis using write through case control
c) Write-back enhances access performance
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

19. What are the characteristics of transaction semantics?
a) Suitable for applications that are concerned about coherence of data
b) The users of this model are interested in the atomicity property for their transaction
c) Easy to implement in a single processor system
d) Write-back enhances access performance
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

20. What are non characteristics of session semantics?
a) Each client obtains a working copy from the server
b) When file is closed, the modified file is copied to the file server
c) The burden of coordinating file sharing is ignored by the system
d) Easy to implement in a single processor system
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

21. The file once created can not be changed is called ___________
a) immutable file
b) mutex file
c) mutable file
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: a
Explanation: None.

22. ______ of the distributed file system are dispersed among various machines of distributed system.
a) Clients
b) Servers
c) Storage devices
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

23. _______ is not possible in distributed file system.
a) File replication
b) Migration
c) Client interface
d) Remote access
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

24. Which one of the following hides the location where in the network the file is stored?
a) transparent distributed file system
b) hidden distributed file system
c) escaped distribution file system
d) spy distributed file system
Answer: a
Explanation: None.

25. In a distributed file system, when a file’s physical storage location changes ___________
a) file name need to be changed
b) file name need not to be changed
c) file’s host name need to be changed
d) file’s local name need to be changed
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

26. In a distributed file system, _______ is mapping between logical and physical objects.
a) client interfacing
b) naming
c) migration
d) heterogeneity
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

27. In a distributed file system, a file is uniquely identified by ___________
a) host name
b) local name
c) the combination of host name and local name
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: c
Explanation: None.

28. There is no need to establish and terminate a connection through open and close operation in ___________
a) stateless file service
b) stateful file service
c) both stateless and stateful file service
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: a
Explanation: None.

29. In distributed file system, file name does not reveal the file’s ___________
a) local name
b) physical storage location
c) both local name and physical storage location
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: b
Explanation: None.

30. Which one of the following is a distributed file system?
a) andrew file system
b) network file system
c) novel network
d) all of the mentioned
Answer: d
Explanation: None.

31.What are characteristics of Naming and Name resolution ?

(A) name systems in the network
(B) address messages with the process-id
(C) virtual circuit
(D) message switching
 answer: B
32.In distributed file system, _______ is mapping between logical and physical objects
(A) client interfacing
(B) naming
(C) migration
(D) hetrogeneity
 answer: B
33.DNS stands for?
(A) Direct Network System
(B) Direct Name System
(C) Domain Name System
(D) Domain Network System
 answer: C
34.Find out the characteristics of System-oriented names:
(A) They are large integers or bit strings.
(B) They are of the same size
(C) Generally shorter than human-oriented names and are easy for manipulations like hashing, sorting and so on.
(D) All A, B, C
 answer: D
35.A _______________in a distributed system is a string of bits or characters that is used to refer to an entity.
(A) name
(B) attribute
(C) identifiers
(D) addresses
 answer: A
36._____________ manage the name spaces and binds an object to its location.
(A) Name Server
(B) Name agent
(C) Context
(D) Name resolution
 answer: A
37______________ is an integral part of the naming facility, maps an object’s name to the object’s location in a distributed system
(A) Naming facility
(B) Locating facility
(C) both (a) and (b)
(D) none of the mentioned
 answer: B
38.________________means that the name of an object should not reveal any hint as to the physical location of the object.
(A) Location transparency
(B) Location independency
(C) Scalability.
(D) Meaningful names
 answer: A
39.________________ means that the name of an object need not be changed when the object’s location changes
(A) Location independency
(B) Location transparency
(C) Scalability.
(D) Meaningful names
 answer: A
40.A naming system should allow many different objects to be identified by the same name”” is known as __________________
(A) Scalability
(B) Location transparency
(C) Group naming
(D) none of the mentioned

 answer: C

41.A naming system should be efficient in the sense that the number of messages exchanged in a name-mapping operation should be as __________ as possible.
(A) big
(B) small
 answer: B
42.A naming system should support the use of ______________ of the same object in a user-transparent manner.
(A) multiple copies
(B) single copy
 answer: A
42.___________ name is generally a character string that is meaningful to its users
(A) System-oriented
(B) Human-oriented
(C) Mapping
(D) none of the mentioned
 answer: B
43.”flat names do not have any structure” True or False?
(A) FALSE
(B) TRUE
 answer: B
44.Each partition of a ____________ name space is called a domain of the name space.
(A) partitioned
(B) machine
(C) flat
(D) none of the mentioned

 answer: A

45.Name spaces are managed by ____________
(A) name machine
(B) name agent
(C) name servers
(D) none of the mentioned
 answer: C
46.The name servers that store the information about an object are called the _______________ of that object
(A) authoritative name clients
(B) authoritative name agent
(C) authoritative name servers
(D) none of the mentioned
 answer: C
47.____________ name spaces are easier to manage efficiently as compared to __________ name spaces
(A) Flat, partitioned
(B) Partitioned, flat
(C) Mahine, flat
(D) none of the mentioned
 answer: B
48.___________ is act between name servers and their clients.
(A) Name machine
(B) Context
(C) Name agents
(D) Main servers
 answer: C
49.A _______________ is structured as a set of subroutines that are linked to the client program
(A) private name agent
(B) public name agent
(C) private name server
(D) public name server
 answer: A

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